Browse Articles

Review Article|27 Sep 2023|OPEN
Network of GRAS transcription factors in plant development, fruit ripening and stress responses
Catarina Neves1 ,† , Beatriz Ribeiro1 ,† , Rute Amaro1 , Jesús Expósito1 , Jérôme Grimplet2,3 , Ana Margarida Fortes,1 ,
1BioISI–Biosystems and Integrative Sciences Institute, Faculty of Sciences, University of Lisbon, Campo Grande, 1749-016 Lisboa, Portugal
2Centro de Investigación y Tecnología Agroalimentaria de Aragón (CITA), Departamento de Ciencia Vegetal, Gobierno de Aragón, Avda. Montañana 930, 50059 Zaragoza, Spain
3Instituto Agroalimentario de Aragón—IA2 (CITA-Universidad de Zaragoza), Calle Miguel Servet 177, 50013 Zaragoza, Spain
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
Both authors contributed equally to the study.

Horticulture Research 11,
Article number: uhad220 (2024)
Views: 46

Received: 07 Feb 2023
Accepted: 20 Oct 2023
Published online: 27 Sep 2023


The plant-specific family of GRAS transcription factors has been wide implicated in the regulation of transcriptional reprogramming associated with a diversity of biological functions ranging from plant development processes to stress responses. Functional analyses of GRAS transcription factors supported by in silico structural and comparative analyses are emerging and clarifying the regulatory networks associated with their biological roles. In this review, a detailed analysis of GRAS proteins' structure and biochemical features as revealed by recent discoveries indicated how these characteristics may impact subcellular location, molecular mechanisms, and function. Nomenclature issues associated with GRAS classification into different subfamilies in diverse plant species even in the presence of robust genomic resources are discussed, in particular how it affects assumptions of biological function. Insights into the mechanisms driving evolution of this gene family and how genetic and epigenetic regulation of GRAS contributes to subfunctionalization are provided. Finally, this review debates challenges and future perspectives on the application of this complex but promising gene family for crop improvement to cope with challenges of environmental transition.