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Article|25 Oct 2023|OPEN
The haplotype-resolved autotetraploid genome assembly provides insights into the genomic evolution and fruit divergence in wax apple (Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. and Perry)
Xiuqing Wei1,2 ,† , Min Chen3 ,† , Xijuan Zhang1 , Yinghao Wang2 , Liang Li1 , Ling Xu1 , Huanhuan Wang2 , Mengwei Jiang2 , Caihui Wang1 and Lihui Zeng2 , , Jiahui Xu,1 ,
1Fruit Research Institute, Fujian Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Fuzhou 350013, Fujian, China
2Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University , Fuzhou 350002, Fujian, China
3Shenzhen Branch, Guangdong Laboratory for Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Genome Analysis Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture, Agricultural Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Shenzhen 518120, China
*Corresponding author. E-mail:,
Both authors contributed equally to the study.

Horticulture Research 11,
Article number: uhad214 (2024)
Views: 40

Received: 17 Apr 2023
Accepted: 16 Oct 2023
Published online: 25 Oct 2023


Wax apple (Syzygium samarangense) is an economically important fruit crop with great potential value to human health because of its richness in antioxidant substances. Here, we present a haplotype-resolved autotetraploid genome assembly of the wax apple with a size of 1.59 Gb. Comparative genomic analysis revealed three rounds of whole-genome duplication (WGD) events, including two independent WGDs after WGT-γ. Resequencing analysis of 35 accessions partitioned these individuals into two distinct groups, including 28 landraces and seven cultivated species, and several genes subject to selective sweeps possibly contributed to fruit growth, including the KRP1-likeIAA17-likeGME-like, and FLACCA-like genes. Transcriptome analysis of three different varieties during flower and fruit development identified key genes related to fruit size, sugar content, and male sterility. We found that AP2 also affected fruit size by regulating sepal development in wax apples. The expression of sugar transport-related genes (SWEETs and SUTs) was high in ‘ZY’, likely contributing to its high sugar content. Male sterility in ‘Tub’ was associated with tapetal abnormalities due to the decreased expression of DYT1TDF1, and AMS, which affected early tapetum development. The chromosome-scale genome and large-scale transcriptome data presented in this study offer new valuable resources for biological research on S. samarangense and shed new light on fruit size control, sugar metabolism, and male sterility regulatory metabolism in wax apple.