1Frontiers Science Center for Transformative Molecules, Joint International Research Laboratory of Metabolic & Developmental Sciences, Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture (South) Ministry of Agriculture, Plant Biotechnology Research Center, Fudan-SJTU-Nottingham Plant Biotechnology R & D Center, School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China 2Laboratory of Medicinal Plant Biotechnology, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Academy of Chinese Medical Science, Zhejiang Chinese Medical University, Hangzhou 310053, China *Corresponding author. E-mail: email@example.com,firstname.lastname@example.org,email@example.com
Received: 05 Jan 2023 Accepted: 24 Mar 2023 Published online: 28 Mar 2023
Artemisinin, which has potent antimalarial properties, is a sesquiterpene endoperoxide originally isolated from the traditional Chinese medicinal plant Artemisia annua. However, the artemisinin content in wild-type (WT) A. annua is low (1–10 mg/g dry weight), leading to its erratic supply and price fluctuations . Recent advances in synthetic biology tools have enabled researchers to engineer several species, including Nicotiana benthamiana and Physcomitrella patens to produce artemisinin [2, 3]. In Saccharomyces cerevisiae, only high-yielding production of the precursor of artemisinin, artemisinic acid (AA), has been achieved, while the synthesis of artemisinin still strictly depends on semi-chemical methods . Meanwhile, current artemisinin production using heterologous expression systems is limited and far from meeting global demand, and A. annua remains its primary commercial source .