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Article|28 Mar 2023|OPEN
CaREM1.4 interacts with CaRIN4 to regulate Ralstonia solanacearum tolerance by triggering cell death in pepper 
Yanqin Zhang1,2 , Shuangyuan Guo1,2 , Feng Zhang1,2 , Pengfei Gan1,2 , Min Li1,2 and Cong Wang3 , Huankun Li1,2 , Gang Gao3 , Xiaojie Wang1,2 , Zhensheng Kang1,2 , , Xinmei Zhang,2,4 ,
1College of Plant Protection, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
2State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology for Arid Areas, Northwest A&F University, Yangling, 712100 Shaanxi, China
3College of Life Sciences, Shanxi Normal University, Taiyuan 030000, Shanxi, China
4College of Life Sciences, Northwest A&F University, Yangling 712100, Shaanxi, China
*Corresponding author. E-mail:,

Horticulture Research 10,
Article number: uhad053 (2023)
Views: 192

Received: 20 Jun 2022
Accepted: 17 Mar 2023
Published online: 28 Mar 2023


Remorins, plant-specific proteins, have a significant role in conferring on plants the ability to adapt to adverse environments. However, the precise function of remorins in resistance to biological stress remains largely unknown. Eighteen CaREM genes were identified in pepper genome sequences based on the C-terminal conserved domain that is specific to remorin proteins in this research. Phylogenetic relations, chromosomal localization, motif, gene structures, and promoter regions of these remorins were analyzed and a remorin gene, CaREM1.4, was cloned for further study. The transcription of CaREM1.4 in pepper was induced by infection with Ralstonia solanacearum. Knocking down CaREM1.4 in pepper using virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) technologies reduced the resistance of pepper plants to R. solanacearum and downregulated the expression of immunity-associated genes. Conversely, transient overexpression of CaREM1.4 in pepper and Nicotiana benthamiana plants triggered hypersensitive response-mediated cell death and upregulated expression of defense-related genes. In addition, CaRIN4-12, which interacted with CaREM1.4 at the plasma membrane and cell nucleus, was knocked down with VIGS, decreasing the susceptibility of Capsicum annuum to R. solanacearum. Furthermore, CaREM1.4 reduced ROS production by interacting with CaRIN4-12 upon co-injection in pepper. Taken together, our findings suggest that CaREM1.4 may function as a positive regulator of the hypersensitive response, and it interacts with CaRIN4-12, which negatively regulates plant immune responses of pepper to R. solanacearum. Our study provides new evidence for comprehending the molecular regulatory network of plant cell death.