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Article|26 Oct 2022|OPEN
Plant N-acylethanolamines play a crucial role in defense and its variation in response to elevated CO2 and temperature in tomato 
Zhangjian Hu1,2 ,† , Junying Shi2 ,† , Shuxian Feng2 ,† , Xiaodan Wu3 and Shujun Shao2 , Kai Shi,1,2 ,
1Hainan Institute, Zhejiang University, Yazhou Bay Science and Technology City, Sanya 572025, China
2Department of Horticulture, Zhejiang University, 310058, China
3Analysis Center of Agrobiology and Environmental Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, 310058, China
*Corresponding author. E-mail:
Zhangjian Hu and Junying Shi,Shuxian Feng contributed equally to the study.

Horticulture Research 10,
Article number: uhac242 (2023)
Views: 247

Received: 04 Aug 2022
Accepted: 18 Oct 2022
Published online: 26 Oct 2022


The ubiquitous lipid-derived molecules N-acylethanolamines (NAEs) have multiple immune functions in mammals, but their roles and mechanisms in plant defense response during changing environment remain largely unclear. Here, we found that exogenous NAE18:0 and NAE18:2 promoted defense against the necrotrophic pathogen Botrytis cinerea but suppressed defense to the hemi-biotrophic pathogen Pseudomonas syringae pv. tomato (Pst) DC3000 in tomato. The knocking-down and overexpression function analysis of the pathogen-responsive NAE synthetic gene PHOSPHOLIPASE Dγ (PLDγ) and hydrolytic gene FATTY ACID AMID HYDROLASE 1 (FAAH1) revealed that the NAE pathway is crucial for plant defense response. Using exogenous applications and SA-abolished NahG plants, we unveiled the antagonistic relationship between NAE and SA in plant defense response. Elevated CO2 and temperature significantly changed the NAE pathway in response to pathogens, while inhibition of the NAE pathway led to the alternation of environment-mediated defense variations against Pst DC3000 in tomato, indicating that NAE pathway is associated with plant defense variations in response to elevated CO2 and temperature. The results herein reveal a new function of NAE in plant defense, and its involvement in environment-mediated defense variation in tomato. These findings shed light on the NAE-based plant defense, which may have relevance to crop disease management in future changing climate.