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Article|24 Aug 2022|OPEN
The chromosome-level genome of Gypsophila paniculata reveals the molecular mechanism of floral development and ethylene insensitivity
Fan Li1,9,10 , , Yuan Gao3,10 , Chunlian Jin1,10 , Xiaohui Wen2,10 , Huaiting Geng1,4 , Ying Cheng1,4 and Haoyue Qu5 , Xing Liu5 , Shan Feng6,7 , Fan Zhang6,7,8 , Jiwei Ruan1 , Chunmei Yang1 , Liangsheng Zhang2,9 , , Jihua Wang,1,9 ,
1Floriculture Research Institute, Yunnan Academy of Agricultural Sciences, National Engineering Research Center for Ornamental Horticulture, Key Laboratory for Flower Breeding of Yunnan Province, 650200, Kunming, China
2College of Agriculture and Biotechnology, Zhejiang University, 310030, Hangzhou, China
3Shenzhen Branch, Guangdong Laboratory of Lingnan Modern Agriculture, Genome Analysis Laboratory of the Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Agricultural Genomics Institute at Shenzhen, Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences, 518120, Shenzhen, China
4School of Agriculture, Yunnan University, 650504, Kunming, China
5Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory of Haixia Applied Plant Systems Biology, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, 350002, Fuzhou, China
6Key Laboratory of Horticultural Plant Biology, Ministry of Education, College of Horticulture and Forestry Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei Province, China
7National R&D Center for Citrus Postharvest Technology, College of Horticulture and Forestry Sciences, Huazhong Agricultural University, Wuhan 430070, Hubei Province, China
8Hubei Hongshan Laboratory, Wuhan 430070, China
9These authors jointly supervised this work
10These authors contributed equally
*Corresponding author. E-mail:,,

Horticulture Research 9,
Article number: uhac176 (2022)
Views: 551

Received: 30 Mar 2022
Accepted: 02 Aug 2022
Published online: 24 Aug 2022


Gypsophila paniculata, belonging to the Caryophyllaceae of the Caryophyllales, is one of the most famous worldwide cut flowers. It is commonly used as dried flowers, whereas the underlying mechanism of flower senescence has not yet been addressed. Here, we present a chromosome-scale genome assembly for G. paniculata with a total size of 749.58 Mb. Whole-genome duplication signatures unveil two major duplication events in its evolutionary history: an ancient one occurring before the divergence of Caryophyllaceae and a more recent one shared with Dianthus caryophyllus. The integrative analyses combining genomic and transcriptomic data reveal the mechanisms regulating floral development and ethylene response of G. paniculata. The reduction of AGAMOUS expression probably caused by sequence polymorphism and the mutation in miR172 binding site of PETALOSA are associated with the double flower formation in G. paniculata. The low expression of ETHYLENE RESPONSE SENSOR (ERS) and the reduction of downstream ETHYLENE RESPONSE FACTOR (ERF) gene copy number collectively lead to the ethylene insensitivity of G. paniculata, affecting flower senescence and making it capable of making dried flowers. This study provides a cornerstone for understanding the underlying principles governing floral development and flower senescence, which could accelerate the molecular breeding of the Caryophyllaceae species.