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Article|04 Aug 2022|OPEN
Jackfruit genome and population genomics provide insights into fruit evolution and domestication history in China 
Xinggu Lin1,2 ,† , Chao Feng1 ,† , Tao Lin1,2 and A.J. Harris1 , Yingzhi Li3 , , Ming Kang,1,4 ,
1Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou, China
2University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, 100049 Beijing, China
3Horticulture and Forestry Department, Guangdong Ocean University, 524088 Zhanjiang, China
4Center of Conservation Biology, Core Botanical Gardens, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 510650 Guangzhou, China
*Corresponding author. E-mail:,
Both authors contributed equally to the study.

Horticulture Research 9,
Article number: uhac173 (2022)
Views: 84

Received: 29 Mar 2022
Accepted: 25 Jul 2022
Published online: 04 Aug 2022


As the largest known tree-borne fruit in the world, jackfruit (Artocarpus heterophyllus) is an important cultivated crop in tropical regions of South and Southeast Asia. The species has been cultivated in China for more than 1000 years, but the history of its introduction to the country remains unclear. We assembled a high-quality chromosome-level genome of jackfruit into 985.63 Mb with scaffold N50 of 32.81 Mb. We analyzed whole-genome resequencing data of 295 landraces to investigate the domestication history in China and agronomic trait evolution of jackfruit. Population structure analysis revealed that jackfruits of China could be traced back to originate from Southeast Asia and South Asia independently. Selection signals between jackfruit and its edible congener, cempedak (Artocarpus integer), revealed several important candidate genes associated with fruit development and ripening. Moreover, analyses of selective sweeps and gene expression revealed that the AhePG1 gene may be the major factor in determining fruit texture. This study not only resolves the origins of jackfruit of China, but also provides valuable genomic resources for jackfruit breeding improvement and offers insights into fruit size evolution and fruit texture changes.