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Article|01 Aug 2022|OPEN
A haplotype resolved chromosomal level avocado genome allows analysis of novel avocado genes
Onkar Nath1 , Stephen J. Fletcher1 , Alice Hayward1 , Lindsay M. Shaw1 , Ardashir Kharabian Masouleh1 , Agnelo Furtado1 , Robert J. Henry1 , and Neena Mitter,1 ,
1Queensland Alliance for Agriculture and Food Innovation, The University of Queensland, Brisbane 4072 Australia
*Corresponding author. E-mail:,

Horticulture Research 9,
Article number: uhac157 (2022)
Views: 90

Received: 30 Mar 2022
Accepted: 04 Jul 2022
Published online: 01 Aug 2022


Avocado (Persea americana) is a member of the magnoliids, an early branching lineage of angiosperms that has high value globally with the fruit being highly nutritious. Here, we report a chromosome-level genome assembly for the commercial avocado cultivar Hass, which represents 80% of the world’s avocado consumption. The DNA contigs produced from Pacific Biosciences HiFi reads were further assembled using a previously published version of the genome supported by a genetic map. The total assembly was 913 Mb with a contig N50 of 84 Mb. Contigs assigned to the 12 chromosomes represented 874 Mb and covered 98.8% of benchmarked single-copy genes from embryophytes. Annotation of protein coding sequences identified 48 915 avocado genes of which 39 207 could be ascribed functions. The genome contained 62.6% repeat elements. Specific biosynthetic pathways of interest in the genome were investigated. The analysis suggested that the predominant pathway of heptose biosynthesis in avocado may be through sedoheptulose 1,7 bisphosphate rather than via alternative routes. Endoglucanase genes were high in number, consistent with avocado using cellulase for fruit ripening. The avocado genome appeared to have a limited number of translocations between homeologous chromosomes, despite having undergone multiple genome duplication events. Proteome clustering with related species permitted identification of genes unique to avocado and other members of the Lauraceae family, as well as genes unique to species diverged near or prior to the divergence of monocots and eudicots. This genome provides a tool to support future advances in the development of elite avocado varieties with higher yields and fruit quality.