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Article|06 Jul 2022|OPEN
Biogeographic and metabolic studies support a glacial radiation hypothesis during Chrysanthemum evolution
Xi Chen1,2 , Haibin Wang1 , Jiafu Jiang1 , Yifan Jiang1 and Wanbo Zhang1 , Fadi Chen,1 ,
1State Key Laboratory of Crop Genetics and Germplasm Enhancement, Key Laboratory of Landscaping, Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Key Laboratory of Biology of Ornamental Plants in East China, National Forestry and Grassland Administration, College of Horticulture, Nanjing Agricultural University, 210095 Nanjing, China
2College of Agriculture and Biological Sciences, Dali University, 671003 Dali, China
*Corresponding author. E-mail:

Horticulture Research 9,
Article number: uhac153 (2022)
Views: 82

Received: 14 Apr 2022
Accepted: 29 Jun 2022
Published online: 06 Jul 2022


Chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat.) is an economically important plant species growing worldwide. However, its origin, especially as revealed by biogeographic and metabolomics research, remains unclear. To understand the geographic distribution of species diversity and metabolomics in three genera (ChrysanthemumAjania, and Phaeostigma), geographic information systems and gas chromatography–mass spectrometry were used in 19, 15, and 4 species respectively. China and Japan were two potential panbiogeographic nodes and diverse hotspots of Chrysanthemum, with species richness ratios of 58.97 and 33.33%. We studied different species from two hotspots which in similar geographical environments had closer chemotaxonomic relationships under the same cultivation conditions based on a cluster of 30 secondary metabolites. The average distribution altitude (ADA) differed significantly among ChrysanthemumAjania, and Phaeostigma in which it was 1227.49, 2400.12, and 3760.53 m.a.s.l. respectively, and the presence/absence of ray florets (RF) was significantly correlated with ADA (−0.62). Mountain landform was an important contributor to global Chrysanthemum diversity, playing a key role in the divergence and distribution pattern of Chrysanthemum and its allies. The Hengduan Mountains–Qinling Mountains (HDQ) in China was a potential secondary radiation and evolution center of Chrysanthemum and its related genera in the world. During the Quaternary glacial–interglacial cycles, this region became their refuge, and they radiated and evolved from this center.