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Article|17 May 2022|OPEN
A systematic review and meta-analysis of vineyard techniques used to delay ripening
Pietro Previtali1,2 , , Filippo Giorgini3 , Randall S. Mullen4 , Nick K. Dookozlian2,5 , Kerry L. Wilkinson1,2 , Christopher M. Ford,1,2
1Department of Wine Science and Waite Research Institute, The University of Adelaide, PMB1 Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia
2Australian Research Council Training Centre for Innovative Wine Production, PMB1 Glen Osmond, SA, 5064, Australia
3Department of Economy, Management and Statistics, University of Milano-Bicocca, I-20125 Milano, Italy
4Research and Development Statistics, E. & J. Gallo Winery, Modesto, CA 95354, USA
5Department of Winegrowing Research, E. & J. Gallo Winery, Modesto, CA 95354, USA
*Corresponding author. E-mail:

Horticulture Research 9,
Article number: uhac118 (2022)
Views: 280

Received: 11 Dec 2021
Accepted: 10 May 2022
Published online: 17 May 2022


Several vineyard techniques have been proposed to delay grape maturity in light of the advanced maturation driven by increasingly frequent water and heat stress events that are detrimental to grape quality. These studies differ in terms of their experimental conditions, and in the present work we have attempted to summarize previous observations in a quantitative, data-driven systematic review. A meta-analysis of quantitative data gathered across 43 relevant studies revealed the overall significance of the proposed treatments and evaluated the impact of different experimental conditions on the outcome of antitranspirants, delayed pruning and late source limitation. Antitranspirants were most effective when applied twice and closer to veraison, while di-1-p-menthene increased the ripening delay by about 1 °Brix compared to kaolin. Larger ripening delays were achieved with delayed pruning of low-yielding vines or by pruning at later stages of apical bud development. Late defoliation or shoot trimming delayed ripening in high-yielding vines and represent suitable solutions for late-harvested varieties, but became ineffective where the treatment decreased yield. This quantitative meta-analysis of 242 primary observations uncovers factors affecting the efficacy of vineyard practices to delay ripening, which should be carefully considered by grape growers attempting to achieve this outcome.