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Article|14 Mar 2022|OPEN
Grafting with rootstocks promotes phenolic compound accumulation in grape berry skin during development based on integrative multi-omics analysis
Fuchun Zhang1,2 , Haixia Zhong2 , Xiaoming Zhou2 , Mingqi Pan2 , Juan Xu2 , Mingbo Liu1,2 , Min Wang2 , Guotian Liu1 , Tengfei Xu1 and Yuejin Wang1 , Xinyu Wu2 , , Yan Xu,1 ,
1State Key Laboratory of Crop Stress Biology in Arid Areas, College of Horticulture, Northwest A&F University, 712100, Yangling, Shaanxi, China
2Institute of Horticulture Crops, Xinjiang Academy of Agricultural Sciences (Key Laboratory of Genome Research and Genetic Improvement of Xinjiang Characteristic Fruits and Vegetables), 830091, Urumqi, Xinjiang, China
*Corresponding author. E-mail:,

Horticulture Research 9,
Article number: uhac055 (2022)
Views: 180

Received: 02 Oct 2021
Accepted: 21 Feb 2022
Published online: 14 Mar 2022


In viticulture, grafting has been practiced widely and influences grape development as well as berry and wine quality. However, there is limited understanding of the effects of rootstocks on grape phenolic compounds, which are located primarily in the berry skin and contribute to certain sensory attributes of wine. In this study, scion–rootstock interactions were investigated at the green-berry stage and the veraison stage when grapevines were hetero-grafted with three commonly used rootstock genotypes (5BB, 101-14MG, and SO4). Physiological investigations showed that hetero-grafts, especially CS/5BB, contained higher concentrations of total proanthocyanidins (PAs) and various PA components in berry skins compared with the auto-grafted grapevines. Further metabolomics analysis identified 105 differentially accumulated flavonoid compounds, the majority of which, including anthocyanins, PAs, and flavonols, were significantly increased in the berry skins of hetero-grafted grapevines compared with auto-grafted controls. In addition, transcriptomic analysis of the same samples identified several thousand differentially expressed genes between hetero-grafted and auto-grafted vines. The three rootstocks not only increased the transcript levels of stilbene, anthocyanin, PA, and flavonol synthesis genes but also affected the expression of numerous transcription factor genes. Taken together, our results suggest that hetero-grafting can promote phenolic compound accumulation in grape berry skin during development. These findings provide new insights for improving the application value of grafting by enhancing the accumulation of nutritious phenolic components in grape.