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Article|17 Feb 2022|OPEN
Chromosome-scale assembly and population diversity analyses provide insights into the evolution of Sapindus mukorossi
Ting Xue1,2 , Duo Chen2 , Tianyu Zhang3 , Youqiang Chen2 , Huihua Fan4 , Yunpeng Huang4 and Quanlin Zhong1 , Baoyin Li,1 ,
1Fujian Provincial Key Laboratory for Plant Eco-physiology, State Key Laboratory for Subtropical Mountain Ecology of the Ministry of Science and Technology and Fujian Province, College of Geographical Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350007, China
2College of Life Sciences, Fujian Normal University, Fuzhou 350117, China
3Shunchang County Forestry Science and Technology Center of Fujian Province, Forestry Bureau of Shunchang, Shunchang 353200, China
4Research Institute of Forestry, Fujian Research Institute of Forestry, Fuzhou 350000, China
*Corresponding author. E-mail:

Horticulture Research 9,
Article number: uhac012 (2022)
Views: 164

Received: 27 Aug 2021
Accepted: 03 Dec 2021
Published online: 17 Feb 2022


Sapindus mukorossi is an environmentally friendly plant and renewable energy source whose fruit has been widely used for biomedicine, biodiesel, and biological chemicals due to its richness in saponin and oil contents. Here, we report the first chromosome-scale genome assembly of S. mukorossi (covering ~391 Mb with a scaffold N50 of 24.66 Mb) and characterize its genetic architecture and evolution by resequencing 104 S. mukorossi accessions. Population genetic analyses showed that genetic diversity in the southwestern distribution area was relatively higher than that in the northeastern distribution area. Gene flow events indicated that southwest species may be the donor population for the distribution areas in China. Genome-wide selective sweep analysis showed that a large number of genes are involved in defense responses, growth and development, including SmRPS2SmRPS4SmRPS7SmNAC2SmNAC23SmNAC102SmWRKY6SmWRKY26, and SmWRKY33. We also identified several candidate genes controlling six agronomic traits by genome-wide association studies, including SmPCBP2SmbHLH1SmCSLD1SmPP2CSmLRR-RKs, and SmAHP. Our study not only provides a rich genomic resource for further basic research on Sapindaceae woody trees but also identifies several economically significant genes for genomics-enabled improvements in molecular breeding.