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Article|01 Jun 2020|OPEN
The genome sequence of star fruit (Averrhoa carambola)
Shasha Wu1, Wei Sun2, Zhichao Xu3, Junwen Zhai1, Xiaoping Li1, Chengru Li1, Diyang Zhang1, Xiaoqian Wu1, Liming Shen1, Junhao Chen4, Hui Ren5, Xiaoyu Dai1, Zhongwu Dai1, Yamei Zhao1, Lei Chen1, Mengxia Cao1, Xinyu Xie1, Xuedie Liu1, Donghui Peng1, Jianwen Dong1, Yu-Yun Hsiao6,7, Shi-lin Chen2,, WenChieh Tsai6,7,, Siren Lan1, & ZhongJian Liu1,
1Key Laboratory of National Forestry and Grassland Administration for Orchid Conservation and Utilization at College of Landscape Architecture, Fujian Agriculture and Forestry University, Fuzhou 350002, China
2Institute of Chinese Materia Medica, Chinese Academy of China Medical Sciences, Beijing 100700, China
3Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China
4State Key Laboratory of Subtropical Silviculture, Zhejiang A&F University, Lin’an, Hangzhou 311300, China
5Horticulture Research Institute, Guangxi Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Nanning 530007, China
6Orchid Research and Development Center, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan 701, China
7Institute of Tropical Plant Sciences and Microbiology, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan City 701, China

Horticulture Research 7,
Article number: 95 (2020)
doi: 10.1038/hortres.2020.95
Views: 566

Received: 21 Nov 2019
Revised: 21 Feb 2020
Accepted: 02 Mar 2020
Published online: 01 Jun 2020

Abstract

Oxalidaceae is one of the most important plant families in horticulture, and its key commercially relevant genus, Averrhoa, has diverse growth habits and fruit types. Here, we describe the assembly of a high-quality chromosome-scale genome sequence for Averrhoa carambola (star fruit). Ks distribution analysis showed that A. carambola underwent a whole-genome triplication event, i.e., the gamma event shared by most eudicots. Comparisons between A. carambola and other angiosperms also permitted the generation of Oxalidaceae gene annotations. We identified unique gene families and analyzed gene family expansion and contraction. This analysis revealed significant changes in MADS-box gene family content, which might be related to the cauliflory of A. carambola. In addition, we identified and analyzed a total of 204 nucleotide-binding site, leucine-rich repeat receptor (NLR) genes and 58 WRKY genes in the genome, which may be related to the defense response. Our results provide insights into the origin, evolution and diversification of star fruit.