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Article|25 Jun 2018|OPEN
A novel integrated non-targeted metabolomic analysis reveals significant metabolite variations between different lettuce (Lactuca sativa. L) varieties
Xiao Yang1,2,3, Shiwei Wei2, Bin Liu1, Doudou Guo1, Bangxiao Zheng4,5, Lei Feng6, Yumin Liu6, Francisco A. Tomás-Barberán3,, Lijun Luo2, & Danfeng Huang1,
1School of Agriculture and Biology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Key Laboratory of Urban Agriculture, Ministry of Agriculture, Shanghai 200240, China
2Shanghai Agrobiological Gene Center, Shanghai 201106, China
3Research Group on Quality, Safety and Bioactivity of Plant Foods, Center for Applied Soil Science and Biology of the Segura, the Spanish National Research Council, (CEBAS-CSIC), Murcia 30100, Spain
4Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021, China
5University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
6Instrumental Analysis Center, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China

Horticulture Research 5,
Article number: 33 (2018)
doi: 10.1038/hortres.2018.33
Views: 534

Received: 23 Dec 2017
Revised: 06 Apr 2018
Accepted: 13 May 2018
Published online: 25 Jun 2018

Abstract

Lettuce is an important leafy vegetable that represents a significant dietary source of antioxidants and bioactive compounds. However, the levels of metabolites in different lettuce cultivars are poorly characterized. In this study, we used combined GC × GC-TOF/MS and UPLC-IMS-QTOF/MS to detect and relatively quantify metabolites in 30 lettuce cultivars representing large genetic diversity. Comparison with online databases, the published literature, standards as well using collision cross-section values enabled putative identification of 171 metabolites. Sixteen of these 171 metabolites (including phenolic acid derivatives, glycosylated flavonoids, and one iridoid) were present at significantly different levels in leaf and head type lettuces, which suggested the significant metabolomic variations between the leaf and head types of lettuce are related to secondary metabolism. A combination of the results and metabolic network analysis techniques suggested that leaf and head type lettuces contain not only different levels of metabolites but also have significant variations in the corresponding associated metabolic networks. The novel lettuce metabolite library and novel non-targeted metabolomics strategy devised in this study could be used to further characterize metabolic variations between lettuce cultivars or other plants. Moreover, the findings of this study provide important insight into metabolic adaptations due to natural and human selection, which could stimulate further research to potentially improve lettuce quality, yield, and nutritional value.